Bulgarien Lew

Bulgarien Lew Navigationsmenü

Der Lew ist die seit verwendete Währung in Bulgarien. Ein Lew ist in Stotínki unterteilt. Der Name Lew stammt von einer veralteten Form des Wortes Löwe, von лѣвъ ab. Diesen Namen bekam das bulgarische Geld, weil auf den Münzen das. Der Lew unter Zar Boris III. Der Lew in der Volksrepublik Bulgarien; Der Lew seit. Euro in Bulgarische Lev wechseln und Wissenswertes zur Währung. Bulgarischer Lew: die erste eigene Währung Bulgariens. Der Bulgarische Lew (​BGN) ist die. Zudem erhalten Sie hier fūr Ihre Bulgarien-Reise die praktische Umrechnungstabelle Leva in Euro. Nehmen Sie diesen kleinen Reisebegleiter mit nach Bulgarien. Der Lew ist die offizielle Währung von Bulgarien. Der Name hat seinen Ursprung im Wort Löwe, dieser war lange Zeit auf den Münzen Bulgariens abgebildet.

Bulgarien Lew

Der Bulgarische Lew ist mit einem fixen Wechselkurs an den Euro gebunden. 1 Lew entspricht somit stets 0, Euro. ISO BGN. numerisch: Zudem erhalten Sie hier fūr Ihre Bulgarien-Reise die praktische Umrechnungstabelle Leva in Euro. Nehmen Sie diesen kleinen Reisebegleiter mit nach Bulgarien. Währung: Bulgarischer Lew (BGL / BGN) (1 Lew = Stotinki) Herausgeber: Bulgarska Narodna Banka (Българска Народна Банка). Umstellung der. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The Sofia Globe. Nach seinem Collegeabschluss studierte er dann Journalismus an der Northwestern. United Kingdom Brexit relations. When will my Beste Spielothek Feisternitz finden be delivered?

Bulgarien Lew Video

Bulgarien Lew Video

Sie haben Fragen? Aktuell ist die vierte MГјnchen Online Merkur an Scheinen und Münzen im Umlauf. Optionales Lösch-Kennwort:. Die Einführung des Euro ist auf unbestimmte Zeit verschoben worden. In den frühen er Jahren setzte jedoch eine starke Inflation ein, sodass die Währung am 1. Den richtigen click the following article Ansprechpartner finden Sie in jeder unserer Geschäftsstellen. Die Scheine zu 1 und 2 Lewa sind inzwischen durch Münzen ersetzt worden. Es wurden verschiedene Münzen zu 50 Stotinki, 1, 2, 5, Leverkusen Madrid 2020, 20, 50 und Lewa ausgegeben. Dieser Wechselkurs ist im bulgarischen Gesetz fest verankert und besteht bis heute. Die Ergebnisse sind auf zwei Nachkommastellen gerundet. Münzen gibt es nun zu 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 und 50 Stotinki und zu 1 und Sextreffen Unverbindliche Lew sowie Scheine zu 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 und Lewa. Notwendig Diese Cookies sind für den Betrieb der Seite unbedingt notwendig und ermöglichen beispielsweise sicherheitsrelevante Funktionalitäten. Sie können Ausdrucke, PDF-Dokumente und Permanentlinks Ihrer Berechnungen mit einer zusätzlichen individuellen Freitext-Kopfzeile versehen und https://josefinalopez.co/online-casino-bonus-no-deposit/joreels.php beispielsweise eine Bezeichnung des Finanzprodukts, eine Kundennummer, Datum oder ähnliches eintragen. Sie können selbst entscheiden, welche Kategorien Sie zulassen möchten. Unter Fürst Alexander Gegen Kroatien Frankreich. Bulgarien Lew Der Bulgarische Lew (BGN). Der Lew (bulgarisch Лев, numerischer Plural: Лева Lewa, „einfacher“ Plural: Левове Lewowe) ist die seit verwendete. Wechselkurs von Euro (€) (EUR) zu Bulgarischer Lew (BGN) / Währungsrechner für viele Währungen mit tagesaktuellen Wechselkurs / Online-Rechner für Ihre. Der bulgarische Lew (bulgarisch Лев,) wurde im Jahre als offizielles Zahlungsmittel von Bulgarien eingeführt. Bis zur Einführung des. Der Bulgarische Lew ist mit einem fixen Wechselkurs an den Euro gebunden. 1 Lew entspricht somit stets 0, Euro. ISO BGN. numerisch: Alle wichtigen Informationen zur bulgarischen Landeswährung haben wir hier für Sie zusammengestellt. Lewa Die Landeswährung von Bulgarien ist der Lew.

Bulgarien Lew - Aktuelle Umrechnungskurse der EZB vom 03.07.2020

Januar eine Währungsreform durchgeführt wurde. Wenn Sie über ein Benutzerkonto verfügen und angemeldet sind, wird der Permanentlink automatisch Ihrem Benutzerkonto zugeordnet. Er wird in Banknoten zu 5, 10, 20, 50, , und Euro ausgegeben. Die Banknoten sind in allen Ländern gleich. Optionales Lösch-Kennwort:. Notwendig Diese Cookies sind für den Betrieb der Seite unbedingt notwendig und ermöglichen beispielsweise sicherheitsrelevante Funktionalitäten. Juni wurde auf den neuen Lew für alte Lewa umgestellt.

Bulgarien Lew - Währungsrechner Bulgarien

Beim Geldumtausch in der Praxis können ungünstigere Wechselkurse zugrunde gelegt werden. Aktuell ist die vierte Serie an Scheinen und Münzen im Umlauf. Noch kein Benutzerkonto? Der Euro löste die nationalen Währungen der mittlerweile 23 europäischen Staaten als Zahlungsmittel ab. Nutzer mit Benutzerkonto Premium Privat oder Premium Geschäft können Ihre eigenen gespeicherten Berechnungen auch ändern und dazu den bestehenden Permanentlink überschreiben. Zurück zum Währungsrechner. Januar Kostenlose Kugelspiele Währungsreform durchgeführt wurde. Bis wurden dieund Article source noch in Silber geprägt, danach kriegsbedingt nur noch in Eisen, Kupfer-Nickel oder Stahl. Der zugrunde liegende Wechselkurs für die beiden Währungen beruhen auf der täglichen Abstimmung zwischen den Zentralbanken in Europa und weltweit. Mithilfe dieser Cookies können wir Leverkusen Madrid 2020 die Besucherzahlen und den Effekt bestimmter Seiten unseres Web-Auftritts ermitteln und unsere Inhalte optimieren. Sie wurden nach einem Wettbewerb von einem Österreicher gestaltet. Diesen Namen bekam das bulgarische Geld, weil auf den Münzen das bulgarische Wappen mit dem Löwen aufgeprägt war. Sie haben Fragen? Es gab Münzen zu 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 und 50 Roulette Spielmarke sowie 1-Lew-Stücke. European Stability Initiative. What's the correct Superior Casino to address mail? Main article: Sport in Bulgaria. Volume 1. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent.

Production of silver coins ceased in , with zinc replacing cupro-nickel in the 5, 10 and 20 stotinki in In , aluminum 1 and 2 leva coins were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel pieces in In , cupro-nickel 5 and 10 leva and silver 20, 50 and leva were introduced, with silver coins issued until , in which year aluminium-bronze 50 stotinki were issued.

In , cupro-nickel 20 and 50 leva were issued, followed, in , by iron 1, 2, 5 and 10 leva. In , nickel-clad-steel 5, 10 and 50 leva were struck.

These were the last coins issued for this version of the lev. In , the Bulgarian National Bank introduced notes for 20 and 50 gold leva, followed in by gold leva and, in , by 5 and 10 gold leva notes.

In , 5, 10 and 50 silver leva notes were issued, followed by and silver leva in and , respectively. In , 1 and 2 silver leva and gold leva notes were introduced, followed by and 10, gold leva notes in In , leva notes were issued, the first to lack a metal designation.

In , a new series of notes dated and was introduced which gave the denominations solely in leva. Denominations introduced were 5, 10, 20, 50, , , and leva.

These were followed in by and leva. In , coins up to leva replaced notes, although lev notes were issued between and Between and , State Treasury Bills for and leva were issued.

However the rate for banking accounts was different, ranging from to Prices for goods were replaced at a rate of In , coins dated were introduced in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 25 stotinki, with the lower three denominations in brass and the higher three in cupro-nickel.

Shortly after, cupro-nickel 20 stotinki coins dated were also issued, followed by 50 stotinki in and 1 lev in which replaced the 1 lev note both also in cupro-nickel.

All stotinki coins feature a head of wheat around denomination on the reverse and state emblem on the obverse, while the lev coin depicts an olive branch wreath around the denomination.

In , state notes dated [4] were issued in 1, 3 and 5 leva, together with notes of the National Bank for 10, 25, 50, and leva.

The reverse side of 1 lev, 3 and 5 leva notes depict hands holding up the hammer and sickle, while higher denominations each depict workers at various trades.

In , another redenomination took place at the rate of 10 to 1, setting the exchange rate at 1. After this, the lev remained fairly stable for almost three decades.

However, like other Communist countries' currencies, it was not freely convertible for Western funds. Consequently, black market rates were five to ten times higher than the official rate.

After the fall of communism, Bulgaria experienced several episodes of drastic inflation and currency devaluation.

In order to change this, in , the lev was pegged to the Deutsche Mark , with 1, lev equal to 1 DM one lev equal to 0. Since , Bulgaria has been in a system of currency board , and all Bulgarian currency in circulation has been completely backed by the foreign exchange reserves of the Bulgarian National Bank BNB.

In , aluminum-bronze 1, 2, and 5 stotinki, and nickel-brass 10, 20 and 50 stotinki and 1 lev were introduced. The coin series strongly resembles coinage from the Soviet Union during the same period, particularly in design and size.

The state emblem is depicted on the obverse of all coins, which went through several changes. The first change in with the introduction of the new coinage, and the second change in , with the ribbons being the most noticeable change.

A number of commemorative 2 leva coins also circulated during this period, often released into circulation as they had relatively high production numbers and little collector's value.

Higher denomination lev coins have also been introduced into circulation at an irregular basis with varying sizes and metallic compositions, including silver.

Mostly due to an overstock of numismatic coins not getting sold to collectors. Similar occurrences to this can be seen with high denomination coins from East Germany and Poland during the same period.

In , after the communist era , older coins were withdrawn and a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 stotinki, 1, 2, 5 and 10 leva.

All were struck in nickel-brass except for the cupro-nickel 10 leva. In , nickel-brass 10, 20 and 50 leva were introduced.

In the average total fertility rate TFR across Bulgaria was 1. Bulgaria is in a state of demographic crisis.

High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system.

Public expenditures for education are far below the European Union average as well. Education in primary and secondary public schools is free and compulsory.

Higher education consists of a 4-year bachelor degree and a 1-year master's degree. The country scores high in gender equality , ranking 18th in the Global Gender Gap Report.

High levels of female participation are a legacy of the Socialist era. More than three-quarters of Bulgarians subscribe to Eastern Orthodoxy.

Contemporary Bulgarian culture blends the formal culture that helped forge a national consciousness towards the end of Ottoman rule with millennia-old folk traditions.

Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva veela are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters.

The establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools in the 10th century is associated with a golden period in Bulgarian literature during the Middle Ages.

Zahari Zograf was a pioneer of the visual arts in the pre-Liberation era. Christo is the most famous Bulgarian artist of the 21st century, known for his outdoor installations.

Folk music is by far the most extensive traditional art and has slowly developed throughout the ages as a fusion of Far Eastern, Oriental, medieval Eastern Orthodox and standard Western European tonalities and modes.

A distinguishing feature is extended rhythmical time , which has no equivalent in the rest of European music. The government has diverted EU funds to sympathetic media outlets and bribed others to be less critical on problematic topics, while attacks against individual journalists have increased.

Bulgarian cuisine is similar to that of other Balkan countries and demonstrates strong Turkish and Greek influences. Meat consumption is lower than the European average, given a cultural preference for a large variety of salads.

Bulgaria appeared at the first modern Olympic games in , when it was represented by gymnast Charles Champaud.

Weight-lifting is a signature sport of Bulgaria. Coach Ivan Abadzhiev developed innovative training practices that have produced many Bulgarian world and Olympic champions in weight-lifting since the s.

Football is the most popular sport in the country by a substantial margin. The national football team 's best performance was a semi-final at the FIFA World Cup , when the squad was spearheaded by forward Hristo Stoichkov.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Bulgaria disambiguation.

Country in Southeastern Europe. Main article: History of Bulgaria. Main article: First Bulgarian Empire. Main article: Second Bulgarian Empire.

Main article: Ottoman Bulgaria. Main article: Geography of Bulgaria. Main article: Politics of Bulgaria. Rumen Radev President.

Boyko Borisov Prime Minister. Main articles: Provinces of Bulgaria and Municipalities of Bulgaria. Largest cities or towns in Bulgaria Census [].

Main articles: Foreign relations of Bulgaria and Military of Bulgaria. Main article: Economy of Bulgaria.

Main article: Science and technology in Bulgaria. Main articles: Energy in Bulgaria and Transport in Bulgaria.

Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria. Main article: Religion in Bulgaria. Main article: Culture of Bulgaria. Main article: Sport in Bulgaria.

Bulgaria portal. See Demographics. Bulvest The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 29 May International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 30 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Transparency International.

Retrieved 10 February Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. Journal of Human Evolution. Nat Ecol Evol Nature University of California Press.

Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum. Retrieved 28 July In contrast, the earliest exploitation and working of gold occurs in the Balkans during the mid-fifth millennium BC, several centuries after the earliest known copper smelting.

This is demonstrated most spectacularly in the various objects adorning the burials at Varna, Bulgaria Renfrew ; Highamet al.

In contrast, the earliest gold objects found in Southwest Asia date only to the beginning of the fourth millennium BC as at Nahal Qanah in Israel Golden , suggesting that gold exploitation may have been a Southeast European invention, albeit a short-lived one.

University of Chicago Press. The oldest known gold jewelry in the world is from an archaeological site in Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria, and is over 6, years old radiocarbon dated between 4, BC and 4, BC.

Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. Government of France. Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 4 December The Necropolis at Varna is an important site in understanding this culture.

United States Central Command. December Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 4 October Nature, Choice and Social Power.

The graves at Varna range from poor to richly endowed, suggesting a rather high degree of social differentiation. Their discovery has led to a re-evaluation of the form of social organization characteristic of the Varna culture and of the onset of social stratification in Neolithic cultures.

Cambridge University Press. Yet we cannot identify the Thracians at that remote period, because we do not know for certain whether the Thracian and Illyrian tribes had separated by then.

Retrieved 16 August Making Europe: The Story of the West. Cengage Learning. Brendan Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations.

Oxford University Press. The Celts: A History. The Boydell Press. Retrieved 18 August A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples.

Archived from the original PDF on 26 March Retrieved 20 August Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity.

The conquest of the Balkans and the rise of the Bulgarian Empire was not a disaster for the indigenous population and its material and spiritual culture.

The settlers and the local Romanized or semi-Romanized Thraco-Illyrian Christians influenced each other's way of life and socio-economic organization, as well as each other's cultures, language and religious outlook.

History of the Goths. Period of Hunnic-Bulgarian domination — ] in Bulgarian. Marin Drinov Publishing House. Retrieved 23 May University of Michigan Press.

Bulgaria's conversion had a political dimension, for it contributed both to the growth of central authority and to the merging of Bulgars and Slavs into a unified Bulgarian people.

Byzantium and Bulgaria. Temple Smith. Retrieved 20 January Synopsis Historiarum. Corpus Fontium Byzantiae Historiae. De Gruyter. The Byzantines.

Blackwell Publishing. History of the Byzantine State. Rutgers University Press. Retrieved 27 July In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Algora Publishing.

Retrieved 21 December The Bulgarian nobility was destroyed—its members either perished, fled, or accepted Islam and Turkicization—and the peasantry was enserfed to Turkish masters.

Retrieved 16 November Geschichte der Bulgaren [ History of the Bulgarians ] in German. Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans.

Peter Lang Publishers. Retrieved 30 September There were almost no remnants of a Bulgarian ethnic identity; the population defined itself as Christians, according to the Ottoman system of millets, that is, communities of religious beliefs.

The first attempts to define a Bulgarian ethnicity started at the beginning of the 19th century. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Religion and Power in Europe: Conflict and Convergence. Edizioni Plus. Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 20 December World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia.

The "Greater Bulgaria" re-established in March on the lines of the medieval Bulgarian empire after liberation from Turkish rule did not last long.

Radio Bulgaria. Retrieved 24 February BBC News. Perrin et cie. Centre for Economic Policy Research.

Archived from the original PDF on 22 June Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 3 October Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 6 August Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.

Columbia University Press. Cornell University Press. Bulgaria in British Foreign Policy, — Anthem Press.

Archived from the original PDF on 30 May Retrieved 12 July The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October Le Monde diplomatique in Bulgarian.

United Nations. Archived from the original PDF on 10 March The Independent. Retrieved 14 September Bulgarian Telegraph Agency.

Retrieved 21 July Bulgarian-Swiss Program For Biodiversity. Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 30 July Gora Magazine. Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original PDF on 4 May Retrieved 12 September Institute of Botany, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Archived from the original on 30 April European Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 25 November Juni wurde auf den neuen Lew für alte Lewa umgestellt.

Daraus resultierte eine Bindung an die Deutsche Mark. Münzen gibt es nun zu 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 und 50 Stotinki und zu 1 und 2 Lew sowie Scheine zu 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 und Lewa.

Die Scheine zu 1 und 2 Lewa sind inzwischen durch Münzen ersetzt worden. Dieser Kurs ist durch bulgarisches Gesetz festgelegt und ändert sich daher nicht siehe auch Currency Board.

Januar gab der bulgarische Finanzminister Wladislaw Goranow bekannt, dass sich das Land binnen der nächsten 6 Monate um einen Beitritt zur Eurozone bewerben wird.

Kupfernickelrand und Messingkern besteht die Gefahr der Verwechslung mit der 1- und 2-Lew-Münze im täglichen Gebrauch, da sie bei flüchtigem Blick gleich erscheint.

Teile dieses Artikels scheinen seit Ende Juni nicht mehr aktuell zu sein. Bitte hilf mit , die fehlenden Informationen zu recherchieren und einzufügen.

Europäische Währungseinheiten. Kategorien : Währungseinheit Europa Wirtschaft Bulgarien.

Cotonificio Albini. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly.

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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Springe zum Inhalt. Inhalt 1 bulgarische lew 2 1 lew 3 bulgarische leva euro 4 lew euro 5 lew währung.

The currency code was BGL until The BGN is made up of stotinki. The currency's name comes from the archaic Bulgarian word "lev," which can be translated to mean "lion.

The plural form of lev is leva. The BGN is pegged at one euro equals 1. Some financial experts believe that Bulgaria should hold tight to the lev, keeping it strong and stable.

Keeping the lev stable has proven to be an excellent move for Bulgaria. The stability of the currency saw the country through external financial crises, such as the Great Recession of and the banking collapse of the Corporate Commercial Bank—Bulgaria's fourth-largest bank—in The Bulgarian economy is industrialized, and the country is upper-middle-class.

Primary exports include steel and iron, clothing, and machinery. The Bulgarian lev can be separated into four distinct historical periods.

The first circulation of Bulgarian currency occurred between and The currency remained intermittently on the gold standard between and and banknotes had gold or silver backing until Wartime pressures caused inflation in the country, and at revaluation one old lev exchanged for new leva.

The rates offered at some banks varied greatly. The currency was pegged to the U. He acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the pope and received a royal crown from a papal legate.

The Asen dynasty became extinct in Internal conflicts and incessant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks followed, enabling the Mongols to establish suzerainty over the weakened Bulgarian state.

The Ottomans were employed as mercenaries by the Byzantines in the s but later became invaders in their own right.

Sozopol was the last Bulgarian settlement to fall, in Christians were considered an inferior class of people under the Ottoman system.

Bulgarians were subjected to heavy taxes including devshirme , or blood tax , their culture was suppressed, [64] and they experienced partial Islamisation.

The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in , then a second one in , the Chiprovtsi Uprising in and finally Karposh's Rebellion in The Western European Enlightenment in the 18th century influenced the initiation of a national awakening of Bulgaria.

Up to 30, Bulgarians were killed as Ottoman authorities put down the rebellion. The massacres prompted the Great Powers to take action.

This allowed the Russian Empire to seek a military solution without risking confrontation with other Great Powers, as had happened in the Crimean War.

It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia , Macedonia and Thrace , roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire , [75] [76] and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.

It was superseded by the Treaty of Berlin , signed on 13 July, which provided for a much smaller state only comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia , leaving large populations of ethnic Bulgarians outside the new country.

The Bulgarian principality won a war against Serbia and incorporated the semi-autonomous Ottoman territory of Eastern Rumelia in , proclaiming itself an independent state on 5 October After a disastrous defeat in the Second Balkan War , Bulgaria again found itself fighting on the losing side as a result of its alliance with the Central Powers in World War I.

Despite fielding more than a quarter of its population in a 1,,strong army [82] [83] and achieving several decisive victories at Doiran and Monastir , the country capitulated in The war resulted in significant territorial losses and a total of 87, soldiers killed.

The resulting political unrest led to the establishment of a royal authoritarian dictatorship by Tsar Boris III — Bulgaria entered World War II in as a member of the Axis but declined to participate in Operation Barbarossa and saved its Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps.

The government of Bogdan Filov subsequently failed to achieve peace with the Allies. Bulgaria did not comply with Soviet demands to expel German forces from its territory, resulting in a declaration of war and an invasion by the USSR in September But all wartime gains, with the notable exception of Southern Dobrudzha , were lost.

The Communist Party was forced to give up its political monopoly on 10 November under the influence of the Revolutions of Zhivkov resigned and Bulgaria embarked on a transition to a parliamentary democracy.

After several years of reforms it joined the European Union and single market in despite Brussels' concerns about government corruption.

Bulgaria occupies a portion of the eastern Balkan peninsula, bordering five countries— Greece and Turkey to the south, North Macedonia and Serbia to the west, and Romania to the north.

The Thracian Plain is roughly triangular, beginning southeast of Sofia and broadening as it reaches the Black Sea coast.

The Balkan mountains run laterally through the middle of the country from west to east. The mountainous southwest has two distinct alpine type ranges - Rila and Pirin , which border the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains to the east, and various medium altitude mountains to west, northwest and south, like Vitosha , Osogovo and Belasitsa.

The Black Sea coast is the country's lowest point. The Struma and the Maritsa are two major rivers in the south.

Bulgaria has a varied and changeable climate, which results from being positioned at the meeting point of the Mediterranean , Oceanic and Continental air masses combined with the barrier effect of its mountains.

Temperature amplitudes vary significantly in different areas. Continental air masses bring significant amounts of snowfall during winter.

The interaction of climatic, hydrological, geological and topographical conditions has produced a relatively wide variety of plant and animal species.

Partridges number some , individuals, making them the most widespread gamebird. In , the Bulgarian government adopted the National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy, a comprehensive programme seeking the preservation of local ecosystems, protection of endangered species and conservation of genetic resources.

Bulgaria ranks 30th in the Environmental Performance Index , but scores low on air quality. Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy where the prime minister is the head of government and the most powerful executive position.

The Constitution also provides possibilities of direct democracy, namely petitions and national referenda. Parties must register with the commission prior to participating in a national election.

Unlike the prime minister, presidential domestic power is more limited. The directly elected president serves as head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the authority to return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the presidential veto by a simple majority vote.

The National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the prime minister and other ministers, declare war, deploy troops abroad, and ratify international treaties and agreements.

Overall, Bulgaria displays a pattern of unstable governments. The protest wave was notable for self-immolations, spontaneous demonstrations and a strong sentiment against political parties.

The subsequent snap elections in May resulted in a narrow win for GERB , [] but the Bulgarian Socialist Party eventually formed a government led by Plamen Oresharski after Borisov failed to secure parliamentary support.

They formed a coalition with the far-right United Patriots , who hold 27 seats. Freedom House has reported a continuing deterioration of democratic governance after , citing reduced media independence, stalled reforms, abuse of authority at the highest level and increased dependence of local administrations on the central government.

Bulgaria has a civil law legal system. The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and oversee the application of laws in subordinate courts.

The legal system is regarded by both domestic and international observers as one of Europe's most inefficient due to pervasive lack of transparency and corruption.

Counterintelligence and national security are the responsibility of the State Agency for National Security. Bulgaria is a unitary state.

A new administrative structure was adopted in parallel with the decentralization of the economic system. All areas take their names from their respective capital cities.

The provinces are subdivided into municipalities. Municipalities are run by mayors, who are elected to four-year terms, and by directly elected municipal councils.

Bulgaria is a highly centralized state where the Council of Ministers directly appoints regional governors and all provinces and municipalities are heavily dependent on it for funding.

Bulgaria became a member of the United Nations in and since has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times, most recently from to Euro-Atlantic integration has been a priority since the fall of communism, although the communist leadership also had aspirations of leaving the Warsaw Pact and joining the European Communities by Bulgaria deployed significant numbers of both civilian and military advisors in Soviet-allied countries like Nicaragua [] and Libya during the Cold War.

Bezmer and Graf Ignatievo air bases, the Novo Selo training range, and a logistics centre in Aytos subsequently became joint military training facilities cooperatively used by the United States and Bulgarian militaries.

Domestic defence is the responsibility of the all- volunteer Bulgarian armed forces , composed of land forces , navy and an air force.

The land forces consist of two mechanized brigades and eight independent regiments and battalions; the air force operates aircraft and air defence systems in six air bases, and the navy operates various ships, helicopters and coastal defence weapons.

A balanced budget was achieved in and the country began running a surplus the following year. The ministries of defence, the interior and justice are allocated the largest share of the annual government budget, whereas those responsible for the environment, tourism and energy receive the least amount of funding.

Value added tax , excise duties , corporate and personal income tax are national, whereas real estate, inheritance, and vehicle taxes are levied by local authorities.

After several consecutive years of high growth, repercussions of the financial crisis of — resulted in a 3. Siphoning of public funds to the families and relatives of politicians from incumbent parties has resulted in fiscal and welfare losses to society.

The labour force is 3. Most of the exports are manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel products and food. Quality Oriental tobacco is a significant industrial crop.

Spending on research and development amounts to 0. Despite the lack of funding, research in chemistry, materials science and physics remains strong.

Bulgaria has made numerous contributions to space exploration. Telephone services are widely available, and a central digital trunk line connects most regions.

Bulgaria's strategic geographic location and well-developed energy sector make it a key European energy centre despite its lack of significant fossil fuel deposits.

Railroads are a major mode of freight transportation, although highways carry a progressively larger share of freight.

The population of Bulgaria is 7,, people according to the national census. The majority of the population, Turkish and Roma minorities account for 8.

In the average total fertility rate TFR across Bulgaria was 1. Bulgaria is in a state of demographic crisis.

High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system.

Public expenditures for education are far below the European Union average as well. Education in primary and secondary public schools is free and compulsory.

Higher education consists of a 4-year bachelor degree and a 1-year master's degree. The country scores high in gender equality , ranking 18th in the Global Gender Gap Report.

High levels of female participation are a legacy of the Socialist era. More than three-quarters of Bulgarians subscribe to Eastern Orthodoxy.

Contemporary Bulgarian culture blends the formal culture that helped forge a national consciousness towards the end of Ottoman rule with millennia-old folk traditions.

Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva veela are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters.

The establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools in the 10th century is associated with a golden period in Bulgarian literature during the Middle Ages.

Zahari Zograf was a pioneer of the visual arts in the pre-Liberation era. Christo is the most famous Bulgarian artist of the 21st century, known for his outdoor installations.

Folk music is by far the most extensive traditional art and has slowly developed throughout the ages as a fusion of Far Eastern, Oriental, medieval Eastern Orthodox and standard Western European tonalities and modes.

A distinguishing feature is extended rhythmical time , which has no equivalent in the rest of European music. The government has diverted EU funds to sympathetic media outlets and bribed others to be less critical on problematic topics, while attacks against individual journalists have increased.

Bulgarian cuisine is similar to that of other Balkan countries and demonstrates strong Turkish and Greek influences. Meat consumption is lower than the European average, given a cultural preference for a large variety of salads.

Bulgaria appeared at the first modern Olympic games in , when it was represented by gymnast Charles Champaud. Weight-lifting is a signature sport of Bulgaria.

Coach Ivan Abadzhiev developed innovative training practices that have produced many Bulgarian world and Olympic champions in weight-lifting since the s.

Football is the most popular sport in the country by a substantial margin. The national football team 's best performance was a semi-final at the FIFA World Cup , when the squad was spearheaded by forward Hristo Stoichkov.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Bulgaria disambiguation. Country in Southeastern Europe.

Main article: History of Bulgaria. Main article: First Bulgarian Empire. Main article: Second Bulgarian Empire.

Main article: Ottoman Bulgaria. Main article: Geography of Bulgaria. Main article: Politics of Bulgaria. Rumen Radev President.

Boyko Borisov Prime Minister. Main articles: Provinces of Bulgaria and Municipalities of Bulgaria. Largest cities or towns in Bulgaria Census [].

Main articles: Foreign relations of Bulgaria and Military of Bulgaria. Main article: Economy of Bulgaria. Main article: Science and technology in Bulgaria.

Main articles: Energy in Bulgaria and Transport in Bulgaria. Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria. Main article: Religion in Bulgaria. Main article: Culture of Bulgaria.

Main article: Sport in Bulgaria. Bulgaria portal. See Demographics. Bulvest The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 29 May International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 30 March United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Transparency International. Retrieved 10 February Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World.

Harvard University Press. Journal of Human Evolution. Nat Ecol Evol Nature University of California Press. Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum.

Retrieved 28 July In contrast, the earliest exploitation and working of gold occurs in the Balkans during the mid-fifth millennium BC, several centuries after the earliest known copper smelting.

This is demonstrated most spectacularly in the various objects adorning the burials at Varna, Bulgaria Renfrew ; Highamet al. In contrast, the earliest gold objects found in Southwest Asia date only to the beginning of the fourth millennium BC as at Nahal Qanah in Israel Golden , suggesting that gold exploitation may have been a Southeast European invention, albeit a short-lived one.

University of Chicago Press. The oldest known gold jewelry in the world is from an archaeological site in Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria, and is over 6, years old radiocarbon dated between 4, BC and 4, BC.

Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. Government of France. Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 4 December The Necropolis at Varna is an important site in understanding this culture.

United States Central Command. December Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 4 October Nature, Choice and Social Power.

The graves at Varna range from poor to richly endowed, suggesting a rather high degree of social differentiation. Their discovery has led to a re-evaluation of the form of social organization characteristic of the Varna culture and of the onset of social stratification in Neolithic cultures.

Cambridge University Press. Yet we cannot identify the Thracians at that remote period, because we do not know for certain whether the Thracian and Illyrian tribes had separated by then.

Retrieved 16 August Making Europe: The Story of the West. Cengage Learning. Brendan Readings in Greek History: Sources and Interpretations.

Oxford University Press. The Celts: A History. The Boydell Press.

3 comments

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