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Rebecca E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm growing pigs in a spatial holeboard task.
Keywords: Reference memory, General working memory, Spatial holeboard task, Salivary cortisol, Environmental enrichment, Pig Sus scrofa.
Introduction Environmental enrichment is believed to satisfy the behavioural needs of pigs to explore and forage and to help the animals to adapt to their environment Ferguson Testing area and holeboard apparatus The barren pen, the enriched pen, a small pen which was used as waiting area before testing and the testing apparatus all were located in the research stable, connected by a corridor see Fig.
Open in a separate window. Results Spatial memory Before the formal training started, the number of different holes visited was scored during six pre-training days, with all holes baited.
Reference memory RM see Fig. Working memory WM see Fig. General working memory GWM see Fig. Inter-visit interval IVI see Fig. Trial duration TD see Fig.
Physical measurements Growth curves see Fig. Saliva basal cortisol see Fig. Discussion Our study provides some support for the hypothesis that enrichment improves cognitive performance in pigs, whereas no evidence was found for an effect of the different environments on basal salivary cortisol as index of stress.
Spatial memory During the acquisition and reversal of a spatial holeboard task, enriched- and barren-housed pigs improved their cognitive performance over trial blocks, corroborating earlier studies Arts et al.
Latencies and durations Neither group reduced their LFV during acquisition nor during the reversal. Growth curves Beattie et al.
Stress and basal saliva cortisol Pigs from barren and enriched housing did not differ in basal salivary cortisol levels, measured at the end of the study.
Testing as enrichment Enrichment, i. Conclusion The present study provides some evidence that pigs reared in an enriched environment after weaning show a better cognitive performance in a spatial holeboard task compared to pigs reared in a barren environment.
Acknowledgments We thank Elly. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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The effect of nose ringing on explorative behaviour in gilts. John Wetton, a bass player, vocalist and songwriter who adapted the dense, progressive rock he performed with bands like King Crimson into mainstream hits with the supergroup Asia in the early s, died on Tuesday near his home in Bournemouth, England.
He was A technically adept bassist with a smooth tenor voice, Mr. He was part of a cohort of musicians, in groups like Pink Floyd and Yes, who were known for an ornate, maximalist brand of rock.
King Crimson, founded in , was another such band, and Mr. Fripp disbanded the group in the mids, when it appeared to be on the brink of reaching a wider audience.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Anat v. J Anat. Published online Jun Doomernik , 1 R.
Kruse , 2 M. Reijnen , 3 T. Kozicz , 1 and J. Kooloos 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections.
Keywords: acrylic resin, blood vessels, cadaver, epoxy resin, gelatine, latex, silicone, vascular anatomy, vascular infusion, vascular injection fluids.
Introduction Anatomical dissections have been extensively used for many years and have made a major contribution to the knowledge of vascular anatomy.
Table 1 Cadaver specimen characteristics. Open in a separate window. Selection of the injection fluids A literature search was performed to identify the most commonly used vascular injection fluids.
Composition of the injection fluids Six categories of injection fluids were identified for vascular infusion, that is dye, gelatin, latex, silicone, epoxy resins and acrylic resins.
Table 2 Composition of the selected vascular injection products. Figure 1. Coloured injection of the arterial system The apparatus in Fig.
Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the arterial system Dissection was performed after complete curing of the infusion fluid using a uniform protocol.
Table 3 Definitions. Table 4 Results of systematic literature search. Category Total number of articles Full text articles Excluded articles Dye a 84 64 20 Gelatin b 64 59 5 Latex c 26 Silicone d 50 41 9 Epoxy resins e 16 15 1 Acrylic resins f Other g 14 14 0 Total Waxes were excluded from the search.
Figure 2. Table 5 Number and smallest diameter of the coloured vessels in skin and subcutaneous tissue. Table 6 Summary of the properties of the different vascular injection fluids.
Silicone The silicone used in this study is a very expensive and toxic product, however, this does not apply to all silicone.
Araldite Araldite is a strong, but fragile epoxy resin, because it lacks elasticity. Conflicts of interests None.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Marjan Doom and colleagues from the Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium for their helpful advice regarding the study protocol.
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